Electricity generation in Ghana has historically relied heavily on hydro and thermal sources. Nevertheless, there has been a deliberate shift towards incorporating more renewable energy sources over the past decade, driven by a desire to diversify the energy mix. Hydropower dominated electricity generation in Ghana from 2000 to 2015, with its share ranging between 51% and 92%. Thermal power has, since 2016, dominated electricity generation, reaching its peak at 65% in 2021 and then slightly declining to 64% in 2022.

Electricity Generation Trend

This graph illustrates the electricity generation trend in Ghana from 2010 to 2022. Over this period, Ghana’s electricity generation has shown a consistent upward trajectory, with a notable exception around 2015 when the country faced an energy crisis. Starting at 10,166 gigawatt-hours (GWh) in 2010, the nation’s electricity generation has steadily increased, reaching an impressive 23,163 GWh in 2022. This substantial growth reflects ongoing efforts to meet the rising energy demands of Ghana’s growing population and economy.

Grid Electricity Generation by Plant (GWh)

Hydropower used to be Ghana’s primary electricity source, but thermal power has gradually become more dominant. Between 2015 and 2016, thermal power production exceeded hydropower for the first time and has continued to rise. Although other renewables like solar and wind have seen growth, their contribution to total electricity generation remains small. In 2022, they accounted for just 0.7% of the total, which is still minor compared to hydropower (35.3%) and thermal power (64%), which make up the majority of electricity generation.

Installed Capacity Against Peak Load (MW)

This graph displays the installed capacity in megawatt opposed to the peak load in a given year. Installed capacity for that time period has seen an increase by 41% and the peak load even one of 49%. Still, installed capacity has constantly been higher than the peak load even during the energy crisis of 2015. Hence, technically the capacity to meet the demand for electrical power without shortages is present in Ghana.

Map of Power Generation Plants