Transmission of electrical energy plays a pivotal role in delivering power from its point of generation, such as power plants, to local substations, where it is subsequently distributed to homes and businesses. In Ghana, this vital task is managed by the Ghana Grid Company Limited (GRIDCo). GRIDCo was established in accordance with the Energy Commission Act, 1997 (Act 541) and the Volta River Development (Amendment) Act, 2005 Act 692, to:
- Undertake economic dispatch and transmission of electricity from wholesale suppliers (generating companies) to bulk customers, which include the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG), Northern Electricity Distribution Company (NEDCo) and the Mines.
- Provide fair and non-discriminatory transmission services to all power market participants.
- Acquire and manage assets, facilities and systems required to transmit electrical energy.
- Provide metering and billing services to bulk customers.
- Carry out transmission system planning and implement necessary investments to provide the capacity to reliably transmit electric energy; and manage the Wholesale Power Market.
Electricity Transmitted and Transmission Losses (GWh)
Electricity transmission in Ghana saw a notable expansion to meet rising demand. Notably, transmission losses followed a distinct pattern. In 2010, these losses amounted to 413 GWh, reaching their peak in 2021 at 1,076 GWh before declining to 922 GWh in 2022. This fluctuation underscores the need to enhance transmission efficiency and reduce energy losses within the electrical infrastructure.
Transmission Losses % of Total Electricity Transmitted
This bar chart illustrates the transmission losses of GRIDCo as a percentage of the total electricity transmitted. The share of transmission losses has been relatively stable over the period of 2010 to 2022, fluctuating around 3.4% and 5.0%. This share is not much higher than the 0.4% to 3% losses at transmission levels observed in a survey of 27 European countries.